Nutritional Adequacy of Essential Nutrients in Low Protein Animal-Based and Plant-Based Diets in the United States for Chronic Kidney Disease Patients (bibtex)
by Dina A Tallman, Ban-Hock Khor, Tilakavati Karupaiah, Pramod Khosla, Maria Chan and Joel D Kopple
Abstract:
OBJECTIVES: The nutritional adequacy of both animal-based and plant-based low protein diets (LPDs) and moderate protein diets that are recommended for patients with chronic kidney disease have not been well examined. We therefore analyzed the nutrient content of three representative LPDs and moderate protein diets (lacto-ovo vegetarian, omnivorous, and vegan) containing foods that are likely to be prescribed for nondialyzed chronic kidney disease or chronic dialysis patients in the United States to determine the nutritional adequacy at different levels of protein intake. METHODS: Theoretical 3-day menus were developed as per current renal dietary guidelines to model each diet at 7 different levels of protein intake (0.5-1.2 g/kilograms body weight/day [g/kg/d]). The diets were analyzed for their content of essential amino acids (EAAs) and other essential nutrients. RESULTS: At an a priori recognized inadequate dietary protein level of 0.5 g/kg/d, all 3 diets failed to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for the following EAAs: histidine, leucine, lysine, and threonine. The omnivorous LPD met both the RDA and Estimated Average Requirement at levels of 0.6 g protein/kg/d or more. The lacto-ovo and vegan diets at 0.6 and 0.8 g protein/kg/d, respectively, were below the RDA for lysine. The amounts of several other vitamins and minerals were not uncommonly reduced below the RDA or Adequate Intake with all 3 LPDs. CONCLUSION: In comparison to omnivorous LPDs, both vegan and lacto-ovo LPDs are more likely to be deficient in several EAAs and other essential nutrients. To provide sufficient amounts of all EAA, vegan and lacto-ovo LPDs must be carefully planned to include adequate amounts of appropriate dietary sources. Supplements of some other essential nutrients may be necessary with all three LPDs.
Reference:
Nutritional Adequacy of Essential Nutrients in Low Protein Animal-Based and Plant-Based Diets in the United States for Chronic Kidney Disease Patients (Dina A Tallman, Ban-Hock Khor, Tilakavati Karupaiah, Pramod Khosla, Maria Chan and Joel D Kopple), In J Ren Nutr, volume 33, 2023.
Bibtex Entry:
@article{Tallman:2023aa,
	abstract = {OBJECTIVES: The nutritional adequacy of both animal-based and plant-based low protein diets (LPDs) and moderate protein diets that are recommended for patients with chronic kidney disease have not been well examined. We therefore analyzed the nutrient content of three representative LPDs and moderate protein diets (lacto-ovo vegetarian, omnivorous, and vegan) containing foods that are likely to be prescribed for nondialyzed chronic kidney disease or chronic dialysis patients in the United States to determine the nutritional adequacy at different levels of protein intake.
METHODS: Theoretical 3-day menus were developed as per current renal dietary guidelines to model each diet at 7 different levels of protein intake (0.5-1.2 g/kilograms body weight/day [g/kg/d]). The diets were analyzed for their content of essential amino acids (EAAs) and other essential nutrients.
RESULTS: At an a priori recognized inadequate dietary protein level of 0.5 g/kg/d, all 3 diets failed to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for the following EAAs: histidine, leucine, lysine, and threonine. The omnivorous LPD met both the RDA and Estimated Average Requirement at levels of 0.6 g protein/kg/d or more. The lacto-ovo and vegan diets at 0.6 and 0.8 g protein/kg/d, respectively, were below the RDA for lysine. The amounts of several other vitamins and minerals were not uncommonly reduced below the RDA or Adequate Intake with all 3 LPDs.
CONCLUSION: In comparison to omnivorous LPDs, both vegan and lacto-ovo LPDs are more likely to be deficient in several EAAs and other essential nutrients. To provide sufficient amounts of all EAA, vegan and lacto-ovo LPDs must be carefully planned to include adequate amounts of appropriate dietary sources. Supplements of some other essential nutrients may be necessary with all three LPDs.},
	author = {Tallman, Dina A and Khor, Ban-Hock and Karupaiah, Tilakavati and Khosla, Pramod and Chan, Maria and Kopple, Joel D},
	date-added = {2023-06-10 14:07:21 +0100},
	date-modified = {2023-06-10 14:12:46 +0100},
	doi = {10.1053/j.jrn.2022.10.007},
	journal = {J Ren Nutr},
	journal-full = {Journal of renal nutrition : the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation},
	keywords = {CKD; Plant-Based Diet, Plado},
	mesh = {Humans; United States; Animals; Diet, Protein-Restricted; Lysine; Diet; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic; Diet, Vegan; Vitamins; GTP-Binding Proteins; Diet, Vegetarian},
	month = {Mar},
	number = {2},
	pages = {249-260},
	pmid = {36460269},
	pst = {ppublish},
	title = {Nutritional Adequacy of Essential Nutrients in Low Protein Animal-Based and Plant-Based Diets in the United States for Chronic Kidney Disease Patients},
	volume = {33},
	year = {2023},
	bdsk-url-1 = {https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2022.10.007}}
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